6-STEP Systematic Evidence-Based Intervention: Teaching Categories To Children With Language Impairments

The Speech Banana Categories Protocol

Language Intervention Utilizing Discrete Trials

This technique may be utilized with anyone on your caseload.  Is it possible to do discrete trial teaching in small groups?  ABSOLUTELY!  

STEP 1: Matching (Matching items in the same categories)

Teacher/Therapist will utilize the following phrases to elicit the desired response.  Give the student a card or object to match.

SD (discriminative stimulus): “Match.”
“Find the (category).”
“Show me where the (animal) would go.”
“Put the (label) with the (animals).”
“Find the (animal).”

Example: “Find the food.” (While giving the child a picture of a hotdog)

R (Response): The student will match the pictures or objects, correctly.

Example: The child will match a picture of a hotdog with a picture of a hamburger.

SR (reinforcing stimulus):  The Teacher/Therapist will reinforce the student based on reinforcers identified by a reinforcement inventory.  Reinforcers could include verbal praise, tickles, high-five, token (if utilizing token economy system), brief interaction with a small object or toy…  (Reinforcement will be discussed in a later post).  If the student responds incorrectly, immediately prompt the student to achieve a correct answer and give the SD again.  You want to end on an independent CORRECT trial rather than a prompted trial.   

Prompt: Physical (Hand Over Hand), Verbal (Verbally announce the correct answer to the child), Gesture (Pointing to or Tapping the correct answer), Positional (Placing the correct answer closer to the child, compared to the other choices)

Field Size: This depends on the child. Typically, you would start with three items on the table, rug (other appropriate workspaces) and gradually increase to ten or more items. Some children require starting with one item on the table and increasing the field size by one item, after two or three correct responses (start with one and gradually increase to the typical starting field size of three, within two to three correct responses). Continually change the cards on the table and their location on the table.

Step 1_ Matching

General Category Examples (do not teach subcategories at this point):
1. Animals: Horse, Cow, Pig, Sheep, Lion, Tiger, Elephant, Zebra, Giraffe, Bear
2. Appliances: Refrigerator, Microwave, Television, Stove, Dishwasher
3. Body Parts: Nose, Ear, Leg, Arm, Foot, Toe, Finger, Knee, Shoulder
4. Cartoon Characters: Mickey, Minnie, Pooh, Blue, Bob the Builder, Elmo
5. Clothing: Shirt, Skirt, Pants, Jeans, Sweater, Coat, Sweatshirt
6. Colors: Red, Yellow, Blue, Purple, Green, Black, Brown, Gray
7. Cooking Utensils: Spatula, Knife, Fork, Spoon, Wisk, Grader, Peeler
8. Desserts: Pie, Cake, Cupcake, Doughnut, Brownie, Jell-O, Pudding
9. Dishes: Plate, Bowl, Cup, Saucer, Baking dish, Pitcher, Coffee Cup
10. Drinks: Milk, Juice, Coffee, Water, Kool-Aid, Lemonade, Tea
11. Foods: Hamburger, Pizza, French Fries, Sandwich, Soup, Steak
12. Fruit: Apple, Banana, Orange, Pear, Pineapple, Cherry, Peach
13. Games: Hungry Hippos, Chutes and Ladders, Sorry, Twister, Connect Four      14. Hats: Baseball hat, Cowboy hat, Beanie, Toboggan
15. Bugs/Insects: Ladybug, Ant, Spider, Caterpillar, Mosquito, Wasp
16. Jewelry: Ring, Necklace, Bracelet, Anklet
17. Laundry Detergent: Tide, Cheer, Gain, ALL
18. Letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K,
19. Makeup: Lipstick, Blush, Eyeshadow, Powder, Mascara
20. Money: Nickel, Dime, Dollar, Quarter, Penny, Five Dollar Bill
21. People: Mom, Dad, Police Officer, Firefighter, Doctor, Grandmother
22. Restaurants: McDonald’s, Chik-fil-A, Burger King, Wendy’s, Taco Bell
23. Shapes: Circle, Square, Triangle, Oval, Moon, Rectangle
24. Department Stores: Wal-Mart, Target, Belk, Nordstrom, Dillard’s, Macy’s
25. Tools: Wrench, Screwdriver, Hammer, Pliers, Saw
26. Toys: Wagon, Blocks, Stuffed Animal, Puzzle
27. Vegetables: Carrot, Tomato, Potato, Lettuce, Radish, Beans
28. Vehicles: Boat, Car, Truck, Bike, Four Wheeler, Golf Cart


STEP 2: Receptive (Receptively identify items in a particular category)

SD: “Give me the ____.”
“Show me the ___.”
“Where is the ___?”
“Point to the ___.”

Example: “Show me the color.”

R: The child will give, touch or point to the correct picture.

Example: The child will give you the red card.

SR: The Therapist/Teacher will deliver reinforcement (if correct) or prompt correct response if the child responds incorrectly.  

Prompt: Physical (Hand Over Hand), Verbal (Verbally announce the correct answer to the child), Gesture (Pointing to or Tapping the correct answer), Positional (Place the correct photo or object closer to the child, compared to the other answers)

step 2 receptive


STEP 3: Expressive (Tacting) With Visual Prompt (Verbally naming the correct category a group of items belong to, using visuals)

SD: Teacher/Therapist will place pictures of the same category on the table in front of the child. The therapist will label the pictures as he/she places them on the table.
“What are these?”
“Tell me what these are?”
“Those are ____.” (Intraverbal)

R: The child will label the correct category.

Example: Therapist (While placing photos or objects on the table):                                    “Cow, Duck, Rabbit, Horse” “Those are ____”
Child: “Animals”

SR: The Therapist/Teacher will deliver reinforcement (if correct) or prompt correct response if the child responds incorrectly.  Start the trial over so that it is completed successfully without a prompt.  

Note: The therapist will use photos and objects in this step. The use of photos and objects will not be counted as a prompt!

Prompt: Verbal (Verbally announcing the correct answer to the child)

step 3 expressive with visual


STEP 4: Expressive (Tacting) Without Visual Prompt (Verbally name the correct category a group of items belongs to, without the use of visuals)

SD: Therapist will name items in a particular category, without showing photos or objects, and ask:
“What are those?”
“What category do those belong to?”
“Tell me what those are?”
“Those are __.” (Intraverbal)

R: The child will label the correct category.

Example: Therapist (Without photos or objects) Announce a list of items.
“Apple juice, Grape juice, Coke, Pepsi, Milk” “What are those?”
Child: “Drinks.”

SR: The Therapist/Teacher will deliver reinforcement (if correct) or prompt correct response if the child responds incorrectly.  Start the trial over so that it is completed successfully without a prompt or independently. 

Note: The therapist will not use photos or objects in this step! If photos and objects are used, they must be scored as a prompted trial!

Prompts: Verbal (Verbally announcing the correct answer to the child), Visual (Showing the child a photo or 3D representation (object) of the answer)

 


STEP 5: Reverse (Verbally naming an item that belongs to a particular category)

SD: “Tell me a (category).”
“Name a (category).”

R: The child will name an item in the specified category.

Example: Therapist: “Tell me an animal.”
Child: “Rabbit”

SR: The Therapist/Teacher will deliver reinforcement (if correct) or prompt correct response if the child responds incorrectly.  Start the trial over so that it is completed successfully without a prompt or independently. 

Prompt: Verbal (Verbally announcing the correct answer to the child), Visual (Show the child a photo or 3D representation (object) of a correct answer)


STEP 6: Reverse Complex Categories (Verbally naming multiple items that belong to a particular category)

SD1: “Tell me a (category).”
“Name a (category).”

R1: The child will name an item in the specified category.

SR: The Therapist/Teacher will deliver reinforcement (if correct) or prompt correct response if the child responds incorrectly.  Start the trial over so that it is completed successfully without a prompt. 

SD2: “Tell me another (category).”
“Name another (category).”

R2: The child will name another item belonging to the same category.

SR: The Therapist/Teacher will deliver reinforcement (if correct) or prompt correct response if the child responds incorrectly.  Start the trial over so that it is completed successfully without a prompt or independently. 

Example: Therapist: “Tell me an animal.”
Child: “Rabbit”
Therapist: “Tell me another animal.”
Child: “Cat”

Note: The therapist may ask the child to name five or six items in the same category!

Prompt: Verbal (Verbally announcing the answer to the child), Visual (Show the child a photo or 3D representation (object) of a correct answer)

 

 

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